tv Global 3000 LINKTV March 26, 2020 1:00am-1:31am PDT
>> welcome to global 3000! climate-friendly alternatives to plastic: we meet jute and hp farmerss in bangladesh and germany . powering the economy with solar energy: a creative couple brings light to remote villages in mali. and we start in venezuela where the effects of endemic corruption are forcing people to flee the country. more than 70 million people around the world have been
forcibly displaced, that's according to estimates by the un. most have fled their homes to escape war, violence or persecution. one of the worst migration crises of recent years is taking place in venezuela but this has nothing to do with war. by the end of 2020, the country will have lost more than a fifth of its population. people are desperate to flee the ongoing effects of corruption, economic mismanagement and hyperinflation. >> millions of venezuelans have lefthe country, fleeing poverty and despair. even though venezuela has the largest proven petroleum reserves in the world. venezuela was once south america's richest nation. now its economy has collapsed sparking one of the worst
migrant crises of recent years. poverty has always b been a fat of life hehere. but when oilil prices werere h, th-preside hugo chavez unched ambious social programs. ash in petrodollars, the country al continued to take on debt. corruption further drained public coffers. the oil crash of 2014 was the final blow. it is the most vulnerable who hahave suffered d the most. mie quijija lives with her ven children in slslum o > venezuela'a's caribbean n co. >> my husbsband went to o peru because of t the crisis. he went ththere to send d us p here at t home. ifif he hadn't gone there, we wowould have died d of hunger.r.
we would havave starved to d d. >> venezuelansns have been aving in dves.s. they are f fleeingungeger, t llapse o othe health care sysystem, and sosoaring chid mortality. thosose without travel documens crcross the bordrder to coloma ilillegally. the brain drain is an especily b bitteblow.. manyny othose flfling are doctors, lawye, , and tehersrs hihighly educateted people thae badly neededed at home.. byby june 2019, some foumimilln vevenezuans hahad ft the country out a a total population of just 30 millio venezuela was ce consired a beac of prosrity, cacas
its glitring, morn capit. corrupti didn't gin with esident go chave who die in 23. but inhe twentyears sie chez firstook offi, corrupon and mmanageme ve spirad out ofontrol. one the linchpins of ththis sysystem was rafafael ramarez.z. he sererved as minisister of ey ununder chavez, , and at the e titime as presidident of the pa oioil company. for yeyears, his loyoyalty o cha¡vez allowed d the presidet to dip i into the coununtrys petrodollalars at will, , witt parliamentntary oversighght or accountabilility. chavez hadad nearly unchchecked access to o oil revenueses. some went t to fund far-r-reacg social p programs. butut bills alalso vanished d into privatete coffers.s. totoday rr, as both his friens and foes call him, has gone
into hiding in exile. >> i'd estimate petroleum exports brought in about 700 billion dollarars. ovover the ten y years i w i in office. by my calculatatn, 480 bilillin of that cameme from taxexes. the rerest from e e pdvsa' petroleum sales. so 700 llioion. the g quesesti is: what did the state do with that money? that's the big question. >> venezuela's political decline began under president hugo chavevez. hihis economic p policies pavee way to a morass ofororruptio in t industrtrl hub ofof maracay, most factories lie abandoned. lesshan 20 p pcent of factories in vezezuela a
still in operation. indury h has been driviven ino ruin. under chavez, numerous companies were expropriated or nationalized and then were driven into the ground by mismanagement. rather than support private industry, chavez used petrodollars to import goods from abroad. this helped redistribute wealth and power away from the old business elite, and increase ordinary people's dependency on the government. a system of state-sponsored terror is maintaininmamaduroa™s -- maduro's's hold on power. ththe colectivosos are paramily gangs who help quell any signs of popular dissent. like syria and ukraine, venezuela has global strategic significance. the united states and russia are jockeying for influence.
without russian intervention, maduro's regime would likely have collapsed. china has maintained its economic and trade ties to venezuela, hoping to gain access to the country's vast natural resources. venezuela has become a bargaining chip in a global game of poker. the geopolitical terrain is shshifting and i in this n c d war,ew couountes are b boming a balelegrou for c cpeting inreststs. the cizezens othose e untries e bebeinleft to fend for ththemsees. millions of ople w wl ntininueo find themselve dilacedd d, forced to flee for their survival. >> around 1515,000 un blue helmets are stationed in mali their main task is to stabilise the country. in 2012, tuareg insurgents and jihadist groups took ctrol of northern mali. they were e pushed back k but e
are ststill sporadic terrorist attacks. climate change and poverty make the situation worse, particularly in ruraral communities. our reporter, jargen schneider and his team travelled southern mali and met two p people who have managed to bring more than just light into a small community. residents in the village of sirakoro in southwestern mali are getting ready to welcome visitors. the village has never had electricity. now that's about to change, thanks to torsten schreiber and his wife aida. they're the founders of a company called africa green tec. they arrive to great fanfare. their company brings solar power plants to remote villages in the sahel region. everyone here has been looking forward to this day for a long time.
>> "it's such a relief to finally achieve e this and mae it possible for the people here. >> "this has taken nearly nine months of preparation. when the moment finally comes where you know, now it's happening, tomorrow there'll be light, it's a great relief. " >> while the villagers celebrate, the malian technicians from africa green tec set to work. there's lots to do before the lights can go on. after the long journey, every component needs checking. the container spent six months at the customs office, followed by a long drive lasting many days over sandy roads. the solar system costs 150,000 euros. the hope is, it will strengthen the local economy. >> "to make a solar plant like this worthwhile, you need a village with at least 4 to 5000 residents. we also look very closely at whether there's potential for a
productive use of the electricity. unlike home solar power providers, our focus is on strengthening small and medium-sized bususinesses. so we want to knowow are there carpentersrs and welders and tailors here? and we look for 40 or 50 small and medium-sized businesses. >> aida schrhreiber was born n mali. she's particularly keen to help the women here. many of them sell goods. she wants them to benefit from the new supply of electricity too. >> "most of the problems the women here have stem from the fact that they have no access to education. as a result they're much more focused on having children. and the birth rates go up and up. what africa greentec does is
offer them an opportunity to receive training and improve their chances of earning money. >> if the economy in the village improves, the residents will also have more money to invest in their children's education. beyond providing electricity, it's also about improving the villagers' prospects. >> "the security situation in the sahel region is obviously a major challenge for us too. but we believe that we can create peace b by providing cln energy and addressing issues of clean water too. when electricity allows people to increase their income, they are more willing to reconcile with each other. in many of our villages, these conflict situations have been reduced. >> in the village of djoliba, a five hour drive away, that's already evident. >> here a solar plant from africa greentec has been operating for two years now and the local economy is flourishing. oumar kaita runs a restaurant
on the main road that leads to mali's capital bamako. he also has a workshop and a chicken farm. >> "i was already on my way to spain. but when i heard that electricity y was coming too djolibiba i came back and opend thisis restaurant.t. and thank god, i'm now earning enough. >> oumar k keita has alslso crd jobsbs, provididing a secure ie for many other families in the village. aida and torsten schreiber keep contact with customers like oumar keita, to learn from their experiences. his success is confirmation that they're on the right path. >> "when it comes to f fightig the causes of migration, our experience shows that many projects address the wrong part of the problem. they focus on migrants returning home, seeking to reintegrate them through training. but we need to address the issues that cause people to leave in the first place.
if you give people prospects, they'll want to stay. obviously you can't reach everyone that way, but certainly people like oumar who want to make a difference. >> back in sirakoro, the work is nearing completion. the last few street lights are being hooked up. some who were previously undecided now want to sign a contract with the company, as they see thihings are really happening. salif konata's wife sesells vegetables andnd poultryry. so he wants electricity in his house. >> "i signed the contract because i want to buy a fridge. then my wife will be able to keep her produce fresh for longer and get a better price for it. my children will be able to study better, , and life here will be safer."
>> customers do have to pay for the electricity. but it costs a lot less than power from the diesel generators that are so widespread in africa. it takes about 15 years for the company to get the money back on its investment. 18 solar containers are already up and running, including one in neighboring niger. four more are on their way to africa. >> "what motivates us as founders is wanting to make a mark, brining change and inspie othehers to follow suit.t. for me personally, helping the environment is key. i want my children to o know tt i at least tried to change things and didn't just watch as everything got worse. > towards evening, everytytg is finally set up. the control systems for the batteries are tested once more, to ensure there will also be power when it gets dark.
>> "that was an important moment. if the storage systems weren't working that would have been it. but now we can produce light. " >> two worlds with close economic ties: europe and asia! how do they address soalal justice?e? what are working conditions like? we visit eight countries on two ntinents to find out how europe and asia work together.
>> he sowed his fifields with jute in early may, hoping to harvest in august. moazzem bepari i is one of thre million farmers in bangladesh who raise the plant that's used to make burlap. the country has the ideal climate for jute cultivation. it's hot, very humid, and there's plenty of water here. but during the last rainy season, there was too much water. flooding caused major damage to his crop. that's why bepari now has to sell his jute under cost for less than he paid to plant it. that's a big problem for him and his family. >> "i feed my family by selling jute. what am i supposed to do now? i've got my baback to the e w. some of my jute plants were washed away.
the market price is very low. and the government doesn't help us either." >> some 25 million people in bangladesh are dependent on jute. after cotton, it's the most commonly used natural fiber in the world. only india produces more of it than bangladesh. jute is resistant to uv rays, and doesn't go brittle in the sun like plastic. fibers made from it are tough, but allow air to circulate. that makes it ideal for transporting foodstuffs. bags made from the fiber are a common product. theya™re manufactured at -- they're manufactured at facilities like this one. processing the fibers is a complex business. the methods have barely changed in decades. but the market has had to weather frequent slumps. and many people here are afraid that demand for jute will continue to fall. >> "once upon a time, jute was known throughout the world as
golden fiber. >> before the invention of plastic, the business was a prestigious one, and very lucrative. but nowadays the jute business has lost its shine. >> recently, however, demand has begun rising again. after all, jute is completely biodegradable. and the issue of climate protection continues to climb the agenda, especially in the eu. in europe, too, traditional fibers like hemp are making a comeback. here in northern germany, in the town of prenzlau, the plant is being turned into eco-friendly building materials. "it's classic wall insulation. hemp works just as well mineral wool or polystyrene. " >> hemp provides a barrier to moisture and vermin, and has
low flammability. blended with a clay loam, it lasts for centuries. and most importantly, hemp is a renenewable resource. that's encouraging its use in germany. for decades, hemp was viewed primarily as an illicit drug, and farmers weren't allowed to cultivate it. that law has now been relaxed, but strict conditions remain in place. when it comes to planting on a large scale, only particular types are authorized. industrial hemp doesn't have any intoxicating effects. it grows very quickly, and can be used to make a range of products. and growing hemp requires a lot less water than cotton. in some cases, just hahalf as much. >> 2.5 million tons of jute are processed every year in bangladesh. the industry is one of the nation's most important economic sectors. but revenues have been falling for years.
the state-owned bangladesh jute mills corporation the owner of this mill is mired in debt. for years, the government has been propping it up with big injections of state funding. but workers still sometimes have to wait weeks for their wages. on average, they eararn around four-and-a-half dollars a day. >> "i earn about 110 dollars a month. i can barely feed my family on that. i have huge debts." >> working with the raw fibers is dusty and strenuous. and in the long-term, it also harms your health. breathing in too much of the dust leads to chronic respiratory disease. many workers here have problems with coughing and shortness of breath. in germany, the illness is known asas hanfarbteterlunge or p
worker lung. but it's not an issue at the hemp processing plant in the uckermark region. that's because most of the work here is done by machines. the company has a staff of just 15 and most of those are machinists. the founders and staff have set up a cooooperative and everye has a say in the business. they all believe hemp has a bright future. >> "i believe the most important thining is if we asa company realize that products have a birth and an end and that they have to suit our lifestyle from beginninto end.. whatat's known as "cradle to cradle that means n not just producig stuff and leaving the waste for the next generation to clean up.
hemp's big advantage is that you don't have to add any salts or synthetics, which makes it a natural product throughout the duration of its life. >> in bangladesh, developers are now looking for products that'll prpromise an equally bright future for jute. like mubarak ahmad khan. he's developed the 'sonali bag' , an a alternative to disposabe plastic bags. made from jute, it hasas all te propoperties of plplastic t its unwanted longevity. >> "this is totally eco-friendly, bio-degradable,, water-soluble and compostable.. and most important is, it is time-dependable by biodegradability. if you want for six months degradation, we can make that one. if you want one to last only five minutes, we can make the five minutes. " >> the next step is to find investors to enable the mass production of this alternative to plastic. that could give jute a fresh and much-needed boost. and restore its pastst reputatn
as the 'golden fiber' for bangladesh. >> this week our global teen comes from india. >> what's you're name? >> my name is s mia aliyah makhija and i live in bangngalore, in india. >> what dodo you do inin your e time >> in my fretime i le to make musicic a i l like write sos. and i also liktoto swiand re, and i like to ay g gol too. i go o the golf course as often as can. because i do tnknk golf is generalllly therapeutitic and s important for me to ndnd of, you ow, chchanl my eneney
ininto a sport.. so f for me, golf f is that sp. i also like to hang out at the cafe with my friends. > what do youour parents dor work? >> my dad is a film director and my mom is interior designer. >> i do ththink that as s socy has progressed, and we've progresseded, i have a l little more freededom tdo dififferent thgs. i have more opportunities, mamaybe, that mymy grandparentns didn't't have at that t pointn time. >>
i want to be a musican. you know, do this ststuff for living. that would be really cool. make music. sell my music. i'm afraid of not living up to everyone's expectations. that include my expectations. i don'n't want to failil. or not reach the goal, that i' setet foryself.f. ♪ >> that's all from us at global 3000 this week! at did y y like abouout the show? at w would you likike learn more about? send your comments to email@example.com and check out
announcer: on this episode of "earth focus," ocean acidification caused by global warming is dramatically affecting marine life. in california, partnerships are forming between cocommercial fisheries, scientists, and community members to helelp the endangered abalone adapt and survive. [slide projector clicking] different announcer: "earth focus" is made possible in part by a grant from anne ray founon